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Sapphire, also called "blue hyacinth" in Arabic, possesses many of the qualities attributed to stones which, with their compactness, resistance and firmness, indicate to man, by contrast, the transience of life as they overcome and transcend the precariousness of his condition.

Sapphire, by virtue of the strength it expresses, symbolizes goodness and magnanimity, fidelity and command. Therapeutic properties are attributed to this gem, especially as regards the ocular apparatus. It has been in demand and widespread for a very long time in India, in the Islamic world and in Europe. Currently the most valuable specimens come from Thailand, Sri-Lanka and Madagascar. The Sapphire is preferably cut oval; particular attention is paid to the study of raw sapphire to obtain the optimal cut of the stone.

Historical notes: the name derives from the Latin sapphirus; it is undoubtedly one of the most famous stones in history and still today its name indicates a shade of blue (even Dante uses it in the Divine Comedy "Dolce color d'oriental sapphire"). Sapphire deposits were found in California at the beginning of the twentieth century, but they were wrong, it was benitoite, a mineral that can boast a color similar to sapphire.

Chemical composition : Al2O3

Specific weight: 3.98-4.10 (often however it is 4.00)

Refractive index: ne = 1,762 nw = 1,770 (birefringence 0.008)

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